Physics of the New Millennium, Birth of the New Paradigm

Eue Jin Jeong, Ph D

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Chapter Overview

Chapter 1: Chronological Order

In the late 1970s, the prospect of the plasma fusion as a physically viable alternative energy for safe and abundant future energy source was widely publicized and conveyed as very promising. As an undergraduate student in physics, I imagined the world where abundant clean energy is available because of the successful solution provided by physicists’ active research. It will certainly be a rewarding career helping humanity to have abundant energy and clean environment.

At the third round of exam for the national scholarship competition for the study abroad program, one of the examiners asked me what would I major for my graduate study. I replied I will study plasma fusion to solve the energy problem for humanity, not knowing exactly what is involved in pursuing such a career path and what will be my evolving interest among the wide branches of the graduate study of physics. These events point to a plausible certainty that I’ll be keeping the quest for energy in close touch even though I may drift away from the subject for a while.

I eventually became as one of two recipients of the national scholarship in the year 1980 in the physics division for the study abroad program offered by the education ministry in South Korea. It was a great honor. My whole extended family including great aunts (my grand father’s sisters) came to the airport to see my departure to America. The whole family believed that somebody who will brighten the Jeong family as prophesied throughout the Korean prophecy books may have come out and he is going for his life long journey to the west.





Chapter Two: Dipole Gravity

In 1982, while studying at the graduate school at the University of Michigan Ann Arbor, I stumbled onto the fact that there is a second order mathematical term in the linearized theory of general relativity that has been discarded as physically meaningless which was a mystery considering that this term could be the most important term in general relativity as its physical strength is right next to Newtonian gravity. The problem with this mathematical term was that once this term is pronounced to have physical meaning, Newtonian mechanical principles have to break down.

According to Newtonian mechanics, an object without being subjected to an external force in the direction of the movement cannot and will not change its position of the center of mass. An object will stay at the same position as long as there is no external force imposed on it. However, this turns out to be not the case when a spinning hemispherical object considered in light of special relativity. The calculation of the center of mass of the spinning hemisphere turns out to have its center of mass shifted depending on the angular frequency of the rotor when the special relativistic mass increase effect applied to the individual mass components.

It is interesting to notice that the dipole gravity equation does not ask if the system is in rotation. The only parameter that the equation is asking is if there is a finite length element of the shift of the center of mass. For miraculous reasons, I found out that this could be achieved by rotating hemisphere, cone or funnel shaped rotor when the special relativistic mass increase effect is incorporated. The equation certainly does not demand that it has to be a rotational motion that creates such a shift of the center of mass. We tend to restrict the meaning of an equation with our preconceived concept that we expect to happen from the known expectations. The reason for making this point is to leave the door open for the possibility that there may be cases that this type of the shift of the center of mass can occur without the actual physical rotation of the object.


Chapter Three: Electromagnetic Free Energy Principle

The theory of electricity and magnetism says that two charges Q1 Q2 placed next to each other in space will repel each other according to the Coulombs law or expressed mathematically by F=Q1Q2/R^2. If the polarity of the two charges is opposite they will attract and if the polarity is the same they will repel. The only difference in the force is the sign indicating if it is repulsive or attractive. So if the charges are placed under restrained condition there develops the potential energy. The attractive potential energy develops at the end of the two wires where one side is positive and the other side is negative. When the tips of two wires get close enough, discharge happens and the potential energy is converted into sound, light or heat energy.
 
The charges inside the metal can naturally jump out of the metal when the density of the electrons exceeds the capacity of the work function potential that can hold the electric charges together. In the process of the electrons are freed from the confinement, the repulsive electrostatic potential energy is converted into the kinetic energy of the electrons. So the procedure for these two different kinds of energy being converted into the kinetic energy is entirely different.
 
However, it is possible that when the stored electrostatic charges are discharged through the cold cathode tube or vacuum tubes, the both modes of  conversion can take place at the same time. First the electrons are repelled from each other as soon as they leave the filaments and jump into the space inside the vacuum tube.
 
Once the electrons are in transit moving toward the positively charged plate, the electrons convert the attractive electrostatic potential energy in the capacitor into the kinetic energy by being pulled toward the positive charges in the plate of the vacuum tube. The electrical current is given by  where the “ ” is the speed of the electrons. It can be seen that both the repulsive and attractive electrostatic potential energy contributes to the speed of the electrons mainly because of the fact that electrons are allowed to expand freely in the space of the vacuum inside the vacuum tube. If the electrons were allowed to travel through a piece of a conducting wire and recombine with the positive charges across the wire, the repulsive electrostatic potential energy would not have the chance to be converted into the kinetic energy. Thereby it is lost in the process.


Chapter Four: Tachyonic Monopole Magnet Neutrinos

I was working at the UT Austin as a research scientist in 1997. This was the time when I finally formulated the idea that neutrinos must be tachyons. I have been wondering what would be the exact physical nature of the neutrinos for a long time. It is a particle that is very difficult to get the exact mental picture of what it would look like. Can neutrinos have real mass? How fast could they travel? Can they ever be in the rest state? Do they really travel at the speed of light as many physicists seem to believe they are? In the midst of this contemplation, I was struck by the idea that the only logical conclusion was that neutrinos must be tachyons. Many theoretical facts about the mysterious neutrinos that I learned at the University of Michigan from the lectures of the Nobel laureate Dr. Martinus Veltman helped me to solidify this idea greatly.

This was before I was able to organize the idea of dipole gravity into the fully functional theory of universe, including the signs of the Lense-Thirring force.

This could have been due to the fact I was wondering deeply about the actual mechanism on how the principle of dipole gravity could work the way it is predicted by general relativity. I conjectured that there must be some kind of back ground particles that facilitate this mechanism. It seemed like this was the only conclusion that can make everything fit together without serious conflict. If a certain theoretical element does not represent the reality of the universe, it would normally increase the inconsistencies and create more problems than reducing it. The mathematics was crying out loudly that neutrinos are tachyons but somehow our preconception seems to make it hard to accept it as a possible alternative.


Chapter Five: Elementary Particle Physics Theories

I decided to include the papers I wrote when I was studying elementary particle physics at the University of Michigan Ann Arbor 1980-1984. I was pondering about leaving these papers out from the book but these theoretical presentations are still valid and they can help resolving many unsolved mysteries in the field of elementary particle physics. They are new ideas yet the papers have not been published in any of the known scientific journals. At those times, I was deeply interested in the way the mass was generated in elementary particle physics. The infinite self energy was subtracted from the calculation of the quantum field theory and the equations still could make sense as long as the subtraction is performed consistent manner so that the strict rule can be observed. Then all the measurable quantities in the particle interactions could be predicted with amazing accuracy.

There is nothing physicist will not do to extract the hidden knowledge and information from the physical nature. In pure gauge theories in quantum field theory, the field of the particles does not have mass. Only when the symmetry is broken, the mass of the elementary particles starts to appear. From these observations, I developed a few of interesting ideas in this line of exploration and wrote a few papers in this period time. The papers were uploaded later in the dipole gravity web page. Quark confinement was one of the most puzzling problems and it was one of the hot topics in the classroom of the particle physics at the time.

To find the first principle quark potential from the quantum field theory, the scale dependent coupling constant derived from the quantum field theory was utilized and it produced a surprisingly detailed strong interaction potential that revealed the secret of the nature of the quark confinement. Outside of the boundary of the hadrons, the quark potential becomes imaginary which means that the probability of the existence of the quark is not guaranteed outside of the hadrons essentially proving that quark has to be confined or at least explains why the quarks cannot be found outside of the hadrons.

I stumbled upon the idea that there was a specific ratio between the mass of the particle in QCD and QED. The formal infinities have the same mathematical structures in the dimensional regularization scheme so that they can be canceled out when the mass ratio was calculated.
And when the known measured value of the coupling constants was plugged in, the ratio between the mass of QCD and QED turned out to be the same as the ratio of the mass of the electron and proton. This was a very surprising result. But not too interesting because QCD is actually representing the field associated with the quarks. So the ratio of the mass of the quark and the electron has turned out to be the mass ratio between the electron and the proton which was not very logical, yet very mysterious because the proton is known to have three quarks inside. What could this possibly mean?

I continued research on the issue of coupling constant and the mass of the elementary particles, and then eventually I came up with the first principle, original form of QCD and QED potentials. I have stumbled into the idea of utilizing the scale dependent running coupling constant of QCD (quantum chromo dynamics) for the purpose of deriving the inner quark potential. The unintended byproduct was to be able to see the similar result from the coupling constant from QED. The idea was simple. It was only a matter of transforming the scaling parameter into the actual distance.

The result was very interesting if not astounding. It produced the quark potential that predicts the confinement. At certain region of very close distance outside of the boundary, the potential becomes imaginary which means that the probability of finding the particle is lost mysteriously outside the hadronic particles. This was a mathematical proof that quarks cannot be observed once they are separated from the boundary of the hadrons. This idea has become the paper titled “Quark Confinement”                                                                                                              

The result was derived from quantum field theory and came out of the first principle and as such it has every footprints of authenticity in the sense that it was not created to fit the experimental data by hand, the practice of which is typically called the particle phenomenology. These papers have not been published in any physics journal but the mathematical results still have relevance to the present day theory of elementary particle physics.


Chapter Six: Coral Castle Mystery, Electromagnetic Antigravity

Anyone who has seen the coral castle will wonder how one man could have built such a gigantic coral stone structures without using any of the modern day weight lifting machinery. If we could believe it was just a magician's trick, it would not have been such a marvel. The problem was that Ed Leedskalnin had his own theory of magnetic phenomenon and he proclaimed that he learned how to move those stones by decoding the Egyptian pyramid builder's secret. We have evidence that the improbable movement of the enormous weight of stones have been made by observing his magnificent coral castle. And here is a person who has actually proclaimed that he learned the secret of how to achieve it in terms of physical and scientific means.

Obviously we have an amazing scientific mystery to solve here. It is easy to dismiss the whole incident as a nonsensical absurdity. It is entirely up to the individual scientist's choice to take the story as a serious challenge for scientific investigation or to dismiss it as an uninteresting and improbable nonsense.

I decided to choose to take the story as a serious challenge as a physicist and to make an attempt to solve the mystery. Looking back, it was not like serendipity or a sudden realization of the key secrets. It was rather a gradual step by step process of discovering the secrets while reading his writings and trying to piece together the entire picture of the circumstances in relation to other adventures that I have made on the nature of the neutrinos as the background particles in the universe.

On site of the coral castle, according to the testimonials of the visitors and also by the well publicized pictures, there is a flywheel with permanent magnets are embedded on the rim placed on regular interval as if it was used to generate some kind of alternating electrical current. When those permanent magnets pass close to an inductor, the inductor will produce pulsed electrical current every time the magnet passes closes to it, the frequency of which will depend on the number of rotation of the wheel per second times the number of magnets embedded on the rim. So this generator could have been used to activate some kind of electromagnetic anti gravity device if we assume that Ed Leedskalnin would not waste his time and energy on something he would not need for his project to build the coral castle, as frugal as he was noted by his neighbors.


Chapter Seven: Eugene Wigner's Writing

In order to obtain an indication as to which alternative to expect ultimately, we can pretend to be a little more ignorant than we are and place ourselves at a lower level of knowledge than we actually possess. If we can find a fusion of our theories on this lower level of intelligence, we can confidently expect that we will find a fusion of our theories also at our real level of intelligence. On the other hand, if we would arrive at mutually contradictory theories at a somewhat lower level of knowledge, the possibility of the permanence of conflicting theories cannot be excluded for ourselves either. The level of knowledge and ingenuity is a continuous variable and it is unlikely that a relatively small variation of this continuous variable changes the attainable picture of the world from inconsistent to consistent. This passage was written after a great deal of hesitation. The writer is convinced that it is useful, in epistemological discussions, to abandon the idealization that the level of human intelligence has a singular position on an absolute scale. In some cases, it may even be useful to consider the attainment which is possible at the level of the intelligence of some other species.

However, the writer also realizes that his thinking along the lines indicated in the text was too brief and not subject to sufficient critical appraisal to be reliable. Considered from this point of view, the fact that some of the theories which we know to be false give such amazingly accurate results is an adverse factor. Had we somewhat less knowledge, the group of phenomena which these "false" theories explain would appear to us to be large enough to "prove" these theories. However, these theories are considered to be "false" by us just for the reason that they are, in ultimate analysis, incompatible with more encompassing pictures and, if sufficiently many such false theories are discovered, they are bound to prove also to be in conflict with each other.

Similarly, it is possible that the theories, which we consider to be "proved" by a number of numerical agreements which appears to be large enough for us, are false because they are in conflict with a possible more encompassing theory which is beyond our means of discovery. If this were true, we would have to expect conflicts between our theories as soon as their number grows beyond a certain point and as soon as they cover a sufficiently large number of groups of phenomena. In contrast to the article of faith of the theoretical physicist mentioned before, this is the nightmare of the theorist.