I decided to include the papers I wrote when I was studying elementary particle physics at the University of Michigan Ann Arbor 1980-1984. I was pondering about leaving these papers out from the book but these theoretical presentations are still valid and they can help resolving many unsolved mysteries in the field of elementary particle physics. They are new ideas yet the papers have not been published in any of the known scientific journals. At those times, I was deeply interested in the way the mass was generated in elementary particle physics. The infinite self energy was subtracted from the calculation of the quantum field theory and the equations still could make sense as long as the subtraction is performed consistent manner so that the strict rule can be observed. Then all the measurable quantities in the particle interactions could be predicted with amazing accuracy.
There is nothing physicist will not do to extract the hidden knowledge and information from the physical nature. In pure gauge theories in quantum field theory, the field of the particles does not have mass. Only when the symmetry is broken, the mass of the elementary particles starts to appear. From these observations, I developed a few of interesting ideas in this line of exploration and wrote a few papers in this period time. The papers were uploaded later in the dipole gravity web page. Quark confinement was one of the most puzzling problems and it was one of the hot topics in the classroom of the particle physics at the time.
To find the first principle quark potential from the quantum field theory, the scale dependent coupling constant derived from the quantum field theory was utilized and it produced a surprisingly detailed strong interaction potential that revealed the secret of the nature of the quark confinement. Outside of the boundary of the hadrons, the quark potential becomes imaginary which means that the probability of the existence of the quark is not guaranteed outside of the hadrons essentially proving that quark has to be confined or at least explains why the quarks cannot be found outside of the hadrons.
I stumbled upon the idea that there was a specific ratio between the mass of the particle in QCD and QED. The formal infinities have the same mathematical structures in the dimensional regularization scheme so that they can be canceled out when the mass ratio was calculated.
And when the known measured value of the coupling constants was plugged in, the ratio between the mass of QCD and QED turned out to be the same as the ratio of the mass of the electron and proton. This was a very surprising result. But not too interesting because QCD is actually representing the field associated with the quarks. So the ratio of the mass of the quark and the electron has turned out to be the mass ratio between the electron and the proton which was not very logical, yet very mysterious because the proton is known to have three quarks inside. What could this possibly mean?
I continued research on the issue of coupling constant and the mass of the elementary particles, and then eventually I came up with the first principle, original form of QCD and QED potentials. I have stumbled into the idea of utilizing the scale dependent running coupling constant of QCD (quantum chromo dynamics) for the purpose of deriving the inner quark potential. The unintended byproduct was to be able to see the similar result from the coupling constant from QED. The idea was simple. It was only a matter of transforming the scaling parameter into the actual distance.
The result was very interesting if not astounding. It produced the quark potential that predicts the confinement. At certain region of very close distance outside of the boundary, the potential becomes imaginary which means that the probability of finding the particle is lost mysteriously outside the hadronic particles. This was a mathematical proof that quarks cannot be observed once they are separated from the boundary of the hadrons. This idea has become the paper titled “Quark Confinement”
The result was derived from quantum field theory and came out of the first principle and as such it has every footprints of authenticity in the sense that it was not created to fit the experimental data by hand, the practice of which is typically called the particle phenomenology. These papers have not been published in any physics journal but the mathematical results still have relevance to the present day theory of elementary particle physics.